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Dr Robert Wilson, Nobel Laureate: Celebration 60th Anniversary 1st Measure of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation CMB Big Bang Origins of the Universe

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Dr Robert Woodrow Wilson, Nobel Laureate and the Community Celebrate: 60th Anniversary of the 1st Measure of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation CMB of the Big Bang Origins of the Universe at the AT&T Labs Science and Technology Innovation Center & Museum, 200 S Laurel Ave Middletown New Jersey.
AT&T Labs, NOKIA Bell Labs, Radio Club of America (RCA), Holmdel Township, Community Members, and everyone will collaborate to Celebrate with Dr Robert Woodrow Wilson.
Many Leaders & Luminaries in the field will participate, present, and send their messages to us at this one of a kind Event, A Day at the Museum. If you cannot attend, please send a good wishes message to the organizers.
STEM Students are invited to Lunch, Meet and Greet Leaders and Luminaries who will encourage future generations to find their passion. Reach out to arrange for your Students.
A Watch Party will provide opportunities to view recorded History, Meet & Greet.
Featured guests will say a few words to Commemorate the Historic importance of the Day.
From Nobel Website:
"Mysterious background radiation
"It has been known for a relatively long time that various astronomical objects emit radiation in the form of radio waves. Radioastronomy has grown in significance and is now a very important complement to classical optical astronomy. The radiation is emitted in various ways; for example, hydrogen clouds in the Galaxy radiate when excited, and cosmic ray electrons radiate when spiralling in the weak magnetic fields of interstellar space. Various objects, such as single stars, galaxies and – quasars, have been found to emit radio waves. In order to study these radio sources, it is, of course, necessary that their radiation show up over the general background radiation. The composition and origin of this background were for a long time not well understood; it was assumed to consist of the integrated radiation from a great number of sources, both galactic and extragalactic.
"The study of cosmic microwave radiation, and especially of the weak background radiation, obviously requires the use of a very sensitive receiver. Such an apparatus was built in the beginning of the 1960s at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the USA. It was originally used for radio communications with the satellites Echo and Telstar. When this instrument became available for research, the two radio astronomers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, decided to use it for the study of microwave background radiation. It was very well suited for this purpose: the instrument noise, i.e., the radiation created by the instrument itself, was very low; furthermore, it was tuned to a wavelength of 7 centimeters. It was already known that the intensity of cosmic microwaves decreases with decreasing wavelength; hence, the intensity at 7 centimeters would be expected to be quite low. However, to their surprise, Penzias and Wilson found a comparatively high intensity. They suspected at first that this radiation must originate either in the instrument or in the atmosphere. However, by painstaking testing, they showed that it came from outer space and that its intensity was the same in all directions. Hence, their measurements allowed the surprising conclusion that the universe is filled uniformly with microwave radiation.
"These two researchers made no suggestions about the origin of this mysterious radiation. When their discovery became known, however, it was found that speculations had already been made about the existence of a weak, microwave background radiation. The starting-point for these speculations had been a number of attempts, made during the 1940s, to explain the synthesis of chemical elements. A theory developed by the American physicist Gamow and his associates suggested that this synthesis took place at the beginning of the existence of the universe. It is known from studies of the spectra of stars and galaxies that the universe is at present expanding uniformly. This means that at a certain point, 15 billion years ago, the universe was very compact; it is thus tempting to assume that the universe was created by a cosmic explosion, or ‘big bang’, although other explanations are possible. This ‘big bang’ theory implies the occurrence of very high temperatures, of about 10 billion degrees. Only at those temperatures can various nuclear reactions take place such that chemical elements could be built up from the elementary particles assumed to be present from the very beginning. It also implies the release of a large amount of radiation, whose spectrum extends from the X-ray region, through visible light, to radio waves. After this hypothetical explosion, the temperature would decrease rapidly (the whole ‘creation’ is assumed to have been completed in a few minutes). The question then remains of what would have happened to the debris of the explosion: matter, consisting of hydrogen, helium and various other light elements, would have expanded as a hot cloud of gas which would gradually have cooled down to form condensations, which developed into galaxies and stars. But what about the radiation? Since the universe is virtually transparent to radiation of these wavelengths, nothing would really have happened to it: the radiation would expand in universe at the same rate as the universe is expanding. The question is whether it still exists and, if so, whether it can be detected. The difficulty here is that because of the expansion of the universe, the wavelength of the radiation has decreased, in the same way that light from distant galaxies is ‘red-shifted’ Instead of the ‘hard’ radiation that would have been emitted during the ‘big bang’, the radiation that might be detected now would correspond to that emitted by a body with a temperature of 3 degrees above absolute zero. No visible light is emitted at such a low temperature, and the radiation emitted falls : entirely within the microwave region, with a maximum intensity of about 0.1 centimeters. It was because of these difficulties that the early predictions were forgotten: it was assumed that it would be impossible to detect such weak radiation in the cosmic noise
"When Penzias and Wilson discovered cosmic microwave background radiation, it was reasonable to suspect that it was fossil radiation from the ‘big bang’. Support for this interpretation came from a number of investigations of the shape of the spectrum, which soon showed that it was indeed that which would be expected for a body with a temperature of 3 degrees. This provided solid support for the view that background radiation is the fossil remains of the ‘big bang’; other interpretations are possible, however, even if they lack detailed theoretical backgrounds. The discovery of Penzias and Wilson was a fundamental one: it has made it possible to obtain information about cosmic processes that took place a very long time ago, at the time of the creation of the universe.
"Recently, investigation of this radiation has been extended. Due to the fact that it fills the entire universe and interacts with interstellar and intergalactic matter, it can be used as a measuring probe. During the last few years it has been found that this radiation is not quite uniform and that its intensity has a certain directional dependence; this can be interpreted as an effect of the motion of the earth and of the solar system relative to the radiation field, and its variation can be used to measure that motion. Since the distribution of the intensity of the radiation reflects the distribution of matter in the universe, the possibility is opened up of defining absolute motion in space. Thus, the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson has marked an important stage in the science of cosmogony."
Thank you to our Hosts and Collaborators.
Thank you, all.
Refreshments will be served.
Co-sponsored by: IEEE AP-S COPE, IEEE AP-S SIGHT and IEEE North Jersey Section Cosponsor the Event on 20 May — 60th Anniversary 1st Measure of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
12:00 PM STEM Lunch with Leaders & Luminaries
Watch Party
A Day at the Museum
Dr Robert Woodrow Wilson, Nobel Laureate: Celebrates 60th Anniversary 1st Measure Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation CMB
Wind down 7PM
Bldg: A2, AT&T Science and Technology Innovation Center and Museum, 200 S Laurel Ave., Middletown Township, New Jersey, United States

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